NAM Aidsmap: "Contraception."
Rodriguez M.D., Maria Isabel "What medications mess with birth control?" Bedsider.com
DeRossi, S.S. Dental Clinics of North America, October 2002.
McKinley Health Center, University of Illinois, "Pill Interactions With Other Drugs"
Weisberg, E. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, May 1999.
U.S. National Library of Medicine: "Griseofulvin," "Ketoconazole," "St. buy augmentin 875 mg John's Wort," "Saw palmetto," "Garlic," "Alfalfa," "Flaxseed." Doodipala, S. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, March 1, 2010.
Epilepsy Foundation: "Women FAQ."
Robertson P. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, January 2002.
Narcolepsy UK: "All you need to know about modafinil and the pill."
Stanford Medicine: "Psychiatric Medications, Modafinil"
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health: "Questions and Answers: A Trial of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) for the Treatment of Major Depression."
Metabolism And Excretion
The half life of amoxicillin after the oral administration of AUGMENTIN is 1.3 hours and that of clavulanic acid is 1 hour.
Approximately 50% to 70% of the amoxicillin and approximately 25% to 40% of the clavulanic acid are excreted unchanged in urine during the first 6 hours after administration of a single 250 mg or 500 mg tablet of AUGMENTIN.
CONSEQUENCES AND INCIDENCE
Broad spectrum antibiotics can lead to lower levels of circulating oral contraceptive hormone levels and have, thus, been implicated in causing failures in women taking oral contraceptives (10). Failure of oral contraceptive steroids can lead to several outcomes, including breakthrough bleeding, pregnancy and menstrual abnormalities such as amenorrhea and spotting (11). Intermenstrual bleeding is often considered a clinical sign of oral contraceptive failure if it has not been experienced by the patient before with a particular medication (11).
Clinical Trial Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions were diarrhea/loose stools (9%), nausea (3%), skin rashes and urticaria (3%), vomiting (1%) and vaginitis (1%). Less than 3% of patients discontinued therapy because of drug related adverse reactions. The overall incidence of adverse reactions, and in particular diarrhea, increased with the higher recommended dose. Other less frequently reported adverse reactions (<1%) include: Abdominal discomfort, flatulence, and headache.
In pediatric patients (aged 2 months to 12 years), 1 US/Canadian clinical trial was conducted which compared 45/6.4 mg/kg/day (divided every 12 hours) of AUGMENTIN for 10 days versus 40/10 mg/kg/day (divided every 8 hours) of AUGMENTIN for 10 days in the treatment of acute otitis media. A total of 575 patients were enrolled, and only the suspension formulations were used in this trial. Overall, the adverse reactions seen were comparable to that noted above; however, there were differences in the rates of diarrhea, skin rashes/urticaria, and diaper area rashes. [See Clinical Studies]